Capture fisheries and aquaculture are researched, planned, and managed throughout the world as if they are independent entities . This ignor es their complex and evolving interdependencies. Global attention on “blue foods” is focused on restoration of capture fisheries and sustainable expansion of aquaculture. Such a binary approach does not fit the current realities, opportunities, and innovations in ocean food systems (OFS), and does not integrate knowledge across the professions. Three OFS typologies of American and spiny lobsters as fed fisheries, salmon aquaculture as aquaculture -enhanced fisheries, and eel aquaculture as a capture-based aquaculture.
Typologies illustrate productive, valuable, and evolving OFS which have great p otential for accelerating innovations greater than those of capture fisheries and aquaculture alone. OFS increase production and social benefits of blue bio economies but are disruptive as they require radically changed science, education, management, and development policies.