Aquaculture Europe 2023

September 18 - 21, 2023


Add To Calendar 20/09/2023 15:15:0020/09/2023 15:30:00Europe/ViennaAquaculture Europe 2023QUANTIFICATION OF THE NORWEGIAN FEED SYSTEM USING MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS – A COMPARISON OF SALMON AQUACULTURE AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTIONStolz 1The European Aquaculture Societywebmaster@aquaeas.orgfalseDD/MM/YYYYaaVZHLXMfzTRLzDrHmAi181982


 A. V. Strand* ,  P. K .  Skavang and  M. Thakur

 SINTEF Ocean, Postboks 4762 Torgarden, NO-7465 Trondheim, Norway



Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar)  is one of the most important export commodities in Norway.  Future growth  in the industry  is expected, and  global  demand  for Norwegian  produced  salmon is rising.  Salmon is generally accepted as a sustainable source of protein, and several studies state that the carbon footprint  of salmon is lower than for example beef, pork and poultry

 . A majority of the carbon footprint of the salmon from farm to harvest  is accounted for by the feed

.  Feed  for salmon produced in Norway has global and complex supply chains , with 92% of all ingredients imported in 2020

 . An average  for the last 10 years show that around 45% of ingredients in compound feed for livestock production  in Norway  were imported

. These global value chains can be vulnerable for political shifts , conflicts, epidemics as well as climate change.  There is a national goal to increase the Norwegian self-sufficiency degree,  and producing sustainable feed resources in Norway is  a key component to succeed here.  The SusFeed project, financed by the Norwegian Research Council (grant #326825) aims to  increase raw material  for feed  produced in Norway and investigates the potential and sustainability of novel feed ingredien ts such as insects, microalgae, and grass fibres.

To investigate and assess the sustainability and robustness of the feed system, a holistic perspective on the feed system is needed.  We aim to quantify the current supply chains of feed in Norway using M aterial F low Analysis (MFA)

. MFA is useful methodology to assess the resource efficiency of a system .  A quantification and visualisation of the feed system  with a MFA  gives a  deeper  understanding of the current feed system , on  the  amounts of  mass, protein and energy currently used and how new ingredients can increase the sustainability of the feed system . 


 The quantification of the current feed system is  done based on the MFA methodology . The system boundaries are from  feed ingredient to edible product of animal in  Norway in  2020. Separate systems were made for salmon, cattle, pork, and poultry .  The system was quantified for total mass of feed, protein, and energy in the feed.  The  MFA is based  on  numbers on  total  feed consumption and animal production from official statistics data sources

 .  Feed composition is based on  average diets from the major feed producers for salmon

 and livestock

.  Rest raw materials are calculated using conversion factors. Other inputs than feed and waste streams have not been quantified for this work.  The systems are visualized using Sankey diagram in Python with  the use of the plotly package


Results & Discussion

 In a world with increasingly higher demand of food and animal-based proteins, sustainable  supply chains are important to reduce negative environmental, social, and economic impacts . It is important that new ingredients fulfil the animal’s nutritional requirement , is produced in a sustainable manner and that resources are used efficiently. Therefor e, knowledge on the current feed system  can help to identify where  improvements can be done.  Using MFA to quantify and visualize the feed system gives a great overview of the current resource utilization and efficiency. Our model also considers a protein and energy layer as  well as  the mass layer , giving an even more profound understanding of the system .  This methodology is also useful to assess the  suitability of new resources in terms of required amounts of mass, protein, and energy.

The visualisations show both how much ingredients are imported , and the degree  of  resource utilization based on feed ingredients into the system, compared  to the amount of the edible product as output of the system. However, o ur work is based on the national feed system, which means  our findings is not valid for individual producers, but our results do give indications of the current resource use  and efficiency in the Norwegian feed system. New ingredients will change both the mass of ingredients, and the feed system as whole. We also identify that the degree of utilization of rest raw materials have great impacts on the e fficiency of the system. 

 Further work in the Susfeed project will analyse  the resilience of new feed vale chains and  the environmental impact of novel feed ingredients using a life cycle assessment and the socio-economic impacts using input-output modelling.